Assignment Hal 29-89 - PDFCOFFEE.COM (2024)

Words in Context OVERVIEW • Strategies for defining words from context

At some point, there may be a word you do not know the meaning of and there may be no prefix or root to help you. In this case, you must look at the context of the word. The context of a word is the setting in which the word occurs in speech or in written materials. You usually learn words by hearing or seeing them in context, and developing this ability will help you learn more words. The following includes exercises for words in context. These passages and vocabulary exercises are not as difficult as those you might find on the TOEFL since the purpose of this book is to teach vocabulary.


In some cases, if you come across an unusual word, the definition of the word is close to it. Try to understand the definition and apply it to the word in context.

• •

Look for another word or phrase in the context that has the same meaning.

Every time you read, practice looking for contextual clues. This will encourage you to analyze the meaning of what you read and will also train you to think about words and their meanings.

In some contexts, direct clues are not given but are implied. In this case, you must think about the context and guess what the meaning of the word can be. Even if you cannot determine its exact meaning, you will be able to determine its general meaning.


chapter 3

• Summing it up


PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

As you read the following passage, see if you can get the meaning of the underlined words from the context in which they appear. Then, do the vocabulary builders that follow. To the Editor: Your article on plans for aiding the elderly to pay their housing costs was not quite clear in several aspects. I would like to clarify the requirements and exemptions available for those who qualify. In the first place, a tenant 62 years old or older must live in a rent-controlled or rent-stabilized dwelling, pay more than one third of his or her income for rent, and have a yearly income of $8,000 or less. Such a tenant must apply for exemption from rent increases and must reapply each year thereafter. Once is not enough. It is understood, however, that should the landlord make a major improvement, a new furnace for example, all tenants must accept rent raises to pay for increased comfort. The elderly, poor tenant is not excluded from such a rent increase. Landlords receive tax exemptions as reimbursem*nt for the money they lose in not increasing rent for the elderly. In New York City, the cost of these tax reductions is $41 million a year, a tremendous figure, but likely to be higher if more of the poor elderly learn they may apply for exemptions. The city is so slow in processing applications that some tenants have paid the full rent. They ought not to have done so. They are fully protected by the law and, once they have applied for exemption, they do not have to pay rent increases. I appeal to you to clarify this issue so that the elderly poor of our city may become aware of the housing benefits for which they qualify. Clara Torres Office of Housing for the Elderly

Vocabulary Builder 1 Directions: Choose the correct meaning of the underlined word. 1.

Tenants over 62 can apply for benefits at the Office of Housing for the Elderly. (A) poor (B) people over 62 (C) people who need aid (D) people who need housing


If you don’t get that furnace repaired before winter, we will freeze to death. (A) fire escape (B) heater (C) water container (D) staircase

Chapter 3: Words in Context



Since landlords get reimbursem*nts, they shouldn’t complain about losing money. (A) bills (B) increases (C) payments (D) housing benefits


The elderly are not excluded from rent raises that all tenants have to pay when the landlord makes a major improvement. (A) obliged (B) included (C) excited (D) eliminated


When their rent increased from $200 to $400 a month, they protested against such a tremendous increase. (A) light (B) difficult (C) huge (D) tiring


Because the city is slow in processing applications, many of the elderly do not get housing benefits. (A) providing (B) working on (C) raising (D) trying


The landlord notified his tenants that their rent would be increased the following month. (A) janitors (B) friends (C) occupants (D) poor people


Reading a daily newspaper will make you aware of what is going on in the world. (A) knowledgeable (B) ignorant (C) alike (D) dependent


PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review Vocabulary Builder 2 Directions: Try to get the meaning of the underlined word from its context in the following sentences. Choose the correct synonym. If you cannot figure it out, look the word up in your dictionary. 1.

It is inevitable that smoking will damage your health. (A) invading (B) unhealthy (C) unavoidable (D) intriguing


What you need after a hard week’s work is a little frivolity over the weekend. (A) luxury (B) harmony (C) fireworks (D) triviality


The general planned a new stratagem to conquer the rebel forces. (A) strafing (B) scheme (C) bomb (D) headquarters


Only a quack would recommend a lettuce diet to an athlete. (A) charlatan (B) duck (C) coach (D) doctor

Chapter 3: Words in Context



The expression “out of the frying pan and into the fire” means to go from one dilemma to a worse one. (A) situation (B) predicament (C) embarrassment (D) aura


He made one last futile effort to convince her and left the house. (A) difficult (B) favorable (C) firm (D) ineffectual


After climbing to the zenith, he slowly worked his way down the mountain. (A) zero (B) top (C) cabin (D) mountain


A glib answer will not serve for a serious question. (A) gross (B) capable (C) facile (D) ignorant


Mary set off on her vacation with the intention of finding a tall, dark, handsome, debonair companion. (A) doleful (B) decent (C) urbane (D) mercenary

10. Ponce de Leon searched in vain for a means of rejuvenating the aged. (A) making young again (B) making weary again (C) making wealthy again (D) making merry again


PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review Many English words are made up of a combination of word elements. A root is a word element, often taken from Latin or Greek, that serves as a base to which other elements are added to modify the root itself. A prefix is a word element placed at the beginning of a root, and a suffix is attached to the end of a root or word. Both prefixes and suffixes change the meaning of the root and form a new word. Recognizing and understanding word elements provide a valuable system of analyzing words, figuring out their meaning, and comparing them to find relationships with words you already know. Using this system, you will also be able to organize and learn words in groups rather than individually. Here are some common Latin and Greek prefixes. Study them and look up the meanings of the words you do not know in the Example column. Prefix



ab, a

away from

abduct, amoral

ad, ac, ag, at


advent, accrue, aggressive, attracts













com, con, col


compliant, conducive, collate





from, down

delete, descend

dis, di ex, e

apart out

disperse, dilate exit, elicit

Chapter 3: Words in Context










hypertension, hyperactive

in, im, il, ir, un


intrepid, impossible, illicit, irreparable, unlikely




intra, intro, in


intramural, introduction, inside















precedence, predecessor


forward, for

propose, proponents
















Vocabulary Builder 3 Directions: Use the words in the Example column, above, to complete these sentences. 1. The men had to their canoe through the woods to the river’s edge. carry across 2. That sentence requires a(n)

. half colon

3. His condition was excellent. after the operation 4. The law requires that there be a(n)

from the second floor apartment. way out

5. Magellan

the world. sailed around

6. Our new president is much more popular than his 7. After the protest march, the crowd

. one who came before

. split apart


PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

8. In the evolution of animals, plants

insects. came before

9. We never agree; his opinions are always to mine. against 10. There seems to be a natural

between cats and dogs. feeling against

11. Workmen at the refinery find that the smell of oil 12. Students engage in many

their clothing. goes through

activities. beyond the curriculum

13. The Greek and Turkish students had a(n) exchange. between two cultures 14. It is for him to see you today. not possible 15. Living in a(n)

is most confining. underwater vehicle

16. He got a job as a(n)

person above

in a dress manufacturing company.

17. The chairman of the board takes over the other board members. right to come before 18. The

of conservation protested against strip-mining. people for

19. Cutting your salt consumption will

your health. do well for

20. The professor has to

his test papers. put together

21. Let’s

our algebra for the exam tomorrow. go over again

22. The terrorists planned to

the American general. take away

23. Some students give more of their time to sports than to their assignments. within the school 24. What is the

of this triangle? distance around

25. A magnet

iron and its alloys. draws to itself

Chapter 3: Words in Context


Study these suffixes. Be sure that you understand what each of the words in the Example column means before you do the exercise. Suffix



able, ible

capable of being

expendable, comprehendible


relating to



relating to



relating to









relating to



one who






pertaining to



full of



person who practices






to make like






result, state


Vocabulary Builder 4 Directions: From the Example column above, choose a word that best fits the following definitions. 1.

A person with no money is



Something that is potent has


The state of being content is called


Something capable of being comprehended is


A person full of grace is


A celebration that has become a tradition is considered


Two countries that are allied form a(n)


The area where birds (avi) are kept is called a(n)

. . .

. . .




PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

Something capable of being expended is considered


10. When weather forecasters talk about the pressure of the atmosphere, they refer to pressure. 11. A person who practices psychiatry is a(n) 12. Someone who works is a(n)

. .

13. If something is described as complex, we can say it has


14. When someone provokes you, we can say he or she has given you


15. When you make something stable, you


16. A complacent person is noted for his or her 17. To make a house beautiful is to

. it.

Vocabulary Builder 5 Directions: See if you can use the suffixes given in the previous exercise to form new words. When you have finished, check your dictionary to make sure you spelled all the words correctly. 1.

Someone who employs others is a(n)



A person who favors conservation is a(n)


The condition of being sane is


Something giving comfort is


Something full of infection is


The result of adjusting is



A person without sense is



A person with ideals is a(n) .


A lenient judge is noted for his

. . . .

. We can say he or she is .

10. To commit something to memory is to


11. A turbulent sea is characterized by its


12. To excite intensely as if by an electric shock is to person.


Chapter 3: Words in Context Vocabulary Builder 6


Directions: Here are ten groups of words that are frequently confused and misused. Look at the definitions; then fill in the correct word in the sentences. 1.

adapt, adopt Adapt means to adjust. Adopt means to take by choice. (A) The committee decided to (B) It is difficult to


the new regulations. to a new environment.

adverse, averse Adverse means acting against. Averse means having a strong dislike. (A) The jury made an

decision, so he was hanged.

(B) An anorexic is 3.

to food.

allusion, delusion, illusion Allusion means an implied or indirect reference. Delusion means a false belief. Illusion means an unreal image. (A) That poor man is under the

that he is the president.

(B) I am not familiar enough with mythology to understand all the s to it in this poem. (C) A good painter can give you the 4.

of broad space in his works.

complement, compliment Complement means to complete or make perfect. Compliment means to praise. (A) I must

you on your choice of flowers for the party.

(B) They are just the right flowers to 5.

the table setting.

council, counsel Council means an elected group to make decisions. Counsel means advice. (A) The

advised the president to raise taxes.

(B) The group was famous for its good 6.


elicit, illicit Elicit means to draw out. Illicit means against a law or rule. (A) The detective attempted to (B)

information about the

drug ring.


PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review


explicit, implicit Explicit means clear and fully expressed. Implicit means meant though not plainly expressed. (A) The manual gives

instructions on how to repair a bicycle.

(B) There was definitely an 8.

threat in the way he glared at her.

ingenious, ingenuous Ingenious means clever at inventing things. Ingenuous means simple, naive, and inexperienced. (A) An

high school student invented a video game.

(B) Katy is so 9.

she will believe anything you tell her.

infer, imply Infer means to draw the meaning from. Imply means to suggest. (A) I


from what you just said that the engagement is over.

Did you mean to

that you don’t love me anymore?

10. immigrate, emigrate Immigrate means to come into a country to make one’s home there. Emigrate means to leave one’s country to go and live in another. (A) Many venturesome people lia. (B) If you language.

from England to Austra-

to this country, you will have to learn the

Chapter 3: Words in Context


Vocabulary Builder 7 Directions: Write the word next to the definition. Your answers are words used in this chapter. 1.

A one-room apartment


Occupant of a building


Advanced in years




Machine for heating a building




A clever trick to obtain an end


PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

When a word has more than one meaning, the dictionary will number each separate definition; the first meaning given is usually the most common use of the word. When looking up a word in the dictionary, you should know which definition provides the meaning of the word as it is used in the particular context.

Vocabulary Builder 8 Directions: Choose the appropriate definitions for the underlined words. Write the number in the space provided. 1.

(1) on the surface; not deep (2) not serious; not complete The article gave a superficial analysis of the country’s economic woes. The parachutist was treated for superficial cuts and bruises.


(1) working very well; sharp (2) severe; strong She suffered from acute back pain after the accident. Most animals have an acute sense of smell.


(1) thoroughly planned (2) intentional; on purpose It was an accident; she didn’t break the vase deliberately. The President is taking deliberate steps to balance the federal budget.


(1) merciful in judgment (2) allowing less than the highest standards Some people felt that the jury was too lenient with the man who shot the senator. It is believed that lenient teachers produce mediocre students.


(1) concerning people who have a close relationship (2) personal; private The two women are intimate friends. They share even their most intimate thoughts.


(1) to become or make strong (2) to combine into fewer or one The two major labor unions consolidated to form one large powerful union. The United States is attempting to consolidate its position in the Caribbean.

Chapter 3: Words in Context



(1) to eat or drink (2) to use up (3) to destroy The entire apartment was consumed by fire. The tennis player contracted hepatitis after consuming tainted fish. Typing his boss’s correspondence consumed most of the secretary’s time.


(1) a particular government (2) a plan to improve one’s health After following a strict regime, the injured gymnast returned to competition. The nation is sure to prosper under the new regime.


(1) causing a feeling of pity (2) worthless; unsuccessful The supervisor is so pathetic that his entire staff is threatening to resign. We were awakened by the kitten’s pathetic cries.

10. (1) to cause to have no effect (2) to disprove; deny Thermal insulation negates the effect of the cold. The governor issued a statement in an attempt to negate the accusations against him.


PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

Vocabulary Builder 9 Directions: Select the one word from the choices given that best completes each of these sentences. Write it in the space provided.

NOTE A rule for the negative prefixes is il before l; im before b, m, or p; ir before r; and in or un before other letters.


The dying man’s speech was so interpret his last request.

that no one was able to

(A) indiscreet (B) nonchalant (C) incoherent (D) impotent 2.

Due to many years of , the Smiths had nothing to fall back on when it was time for them to retire. (A) illiteracy (B) impunity (C) inflexibility (D) imprudence


Certain pessimists feel that a nuclear war in our time is (A) inevitable (B) illicit (C) disconcerting (D) impossible


The personnel manager could not even consider her for the position because of her appearance. (A) inept (B) inflexible (C) unkempt (D) disheartened


We received the this year. (A) disreputable (B) uncanny (C) incongruous (D) disconcerting

news today that there would be no raises


Chapter 3: Words in Context


It was truly miraculous that the child was stories. (A) unscathed


after falling six

(B) uncanny (C) irreparable (D) illiterate 7.

Modern architecture often seems (A) unlikely

in a city rich in history.

(B) unwitting (C) incongruous (D) unkempt 8.

Serpico is known for his officers who accepted bribes. (A) incalculable

efforts to expose fellow police

(B) inexorable (C) unwieldy (D) illicit 9.

Barbara’s parents received a report from her teacher that said, “Barbara is an excellent student, but she talks to her friends during class.” (A) ineptly (B) incoherently (C) unerringly (D) incessantly

10. A civil war pits brother against brother and causes to a nation’s morale. (A) uncompromising


(B) incalculable (C) invariable (D) infallible


PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review Vocabulary Builder 10 Directions: Write the number of the word in Column B that has the same meaning as the word in Column A. Put the number on the line provided. A


a. sure

1. inexorable

b. unable to do things

2. imprudent

c. unharmed

3. incoherent

d. inflexible

4. incongruous

e. unwise, not careful

5. disreputable

f. forbidden

6. infallible

g. disjointed, garbled

7. incessant

h. not neat

8. illiterate

i. very great

9. incalculable

j. of bad character

10. disconcerted

k. unable to read and write

11. illicit

l. inappropriate

12. inept

m. constant

13. unscathed

n. upset

14. inevitable

o. unavoidable

15. unkempt

Chapter 3: Words in Context



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

EXERCISES: ANTONYMS Directions: Choose the word among the four alternatives that is the opposite (antonym) of the underlined word. 1. I ate lunch with a most convivial group of my friends.

6. The convicted robber hoped the judge would give him a lenient sentence.

(A) lively

(A) easy

(B) large

(B) unmerciful

(C) unsociable

(C) acute

(D) old

(D) frightening

2. I prefer muted colors in my living room. (A) changeable

7. Hector takes his dates to intimate restaurants where there is candlelight.

(B) bright

(A) large and brightly lit

(C) dull

(B) quiet

(D) mauve

(C) noisy

3. She came for Christmas laden with gifts for everyone.

(D) dark 8. As he lay dying, his speech was incoherent.

(A) later

(A) inaudible

(B) provided

(B) organized

(C) unloaded

(C) interesting

(D) lifted

(D) indecent

4. She had a cozy little apartment in Boston. (A) uncomfortable (B) dirty (C) lazy (D) warm 5. She was a very superficial person with a large group of frivolous friends. (A) superior (B) deep (C) attractive (D) horrible

9. If you want to make a good impression on my father, you will have to be less unkempt than you are now. (A) discreet (B) uncanny (C) literate (D) neat 10. His career in the illicit drug trade ended with the police raid this morning. (A) irregular (B) legal (C) elicited (D) secret

Chapter 3: Words in Context

14. I cannot stand professors who think they are infallible. (A) imperfect

(A) pleasing

(B) inexorable

(B) activating

(C) inept

(C) refreshing

(D) inflexible

(D) debilitating 12. A frightening number of illiterate students are graduating from college. (A) able to read and write (B) able to enjoy intramural sports (C) unable to pass an examination in reading and writing

15. My brother-in-law talks incessantly. (A) indiscreetly (B) inevitably (C) seldom (D) sensibly

(D) inflexible 13. John was so insubordinate that he lost his job within a week. (A) fresh (B) understanding (C) indiscreet (D) obedient


11. Having planned our weekends to watch football, we found the news of the players’ strike most disconcerting.



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

EXERCISES: MEANING FROM CONTEXT Directions: Select a word from the list below that best completes the following sentences. compete










1. The use of audiovisual materials in foreign language teaching was one of the most important s in recent years. 2.

Middle Easterners have been buying some of England’s ancient estates.

3. Wearing his ten-gallon hat, the Texan has become the of the American Westerner. 4. Doing volunteer work at the hospital is not a very pastime. 5. You have made a(n) improvement in your handwriting since you took that calligraphy course.

6. In order to in today’s market, we are going to lower our prices. 7. Mrs. Golightly had cosmetic surgery and appears much . 8. Imagine his when he discovered he had forgotten to pay his electric bill and the company turned off his power. 9. The automatic washing machine is one of the without which I cannot live. 10. Many a crime has gone unpunished because of the of bystanders.

Chapter 3: Words in Context


Directions: Choose the best synonym for the underlined word.

1. She was overcome by chagrin at the checkout counter when she discovered she had left her wallet at home.

6. The doctor warned her that adequate diet was of paramount importance in effecting a cure.

(A) anger

(A) moving

(B) poverty

(B) chief

(C) embarrassment

(C) healing

(D) challenge

(D) saving

2. The space shuttle covered vast distances. (A) very

7. Occasionally, the most unlikely people manage to collaborate successfully.

(B) huge

(A) put together

(C) varying

(B) stand together

(D) hard

(C) work together

3. Dr. Jones suggested that final examinations be discontinued, an innovation I heartily support.

(D) get together 8. Peter advised his clientele that he would be on vacation for the month of January.

(A) entrance

(A) clinic

(B) change

(B) customers

(C) inner part

(C) salespeople

(D) test

(D) contact

4. She plans to compete in the marathon. (A) contend

9. I’d rather stay in a hotel with all the amenities than camp in the woods.

(B) compare

(A) conveniences

(C) delay

(B) friends

(D) register

(C) expenses

5. His new yacht is certainly an ostentacious display of his wealth. (A) ossified

(D) sports 10. The night before this exam I tried not to succumb to sleep.

(B) showy

(A) scoff

(C) large

(B) save

(D) expensive

(C) yield (D) try




PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

11. He inherited a lucrative business from his father.

16. Although he knew she had work to do, he tried to entice her to go to the beach.

(A) lucid

(A) trace

(B) wealthy

(B) enervate

(C) losing

(C) tempt

(D) profitable

(D) thrice

12. Apathy toward his studies prevented his graduation. (A) indirection

17. Having spent all my money on tuition, I am not affluent enough even to go to the movies.

(B) indifference

(A) destitute

(C) indecision

(B) arrogant

(D) indication

(C) wealthy

13. Her large weight loss has rejuvenated her. (A) slimmed again

(D) afraid 18. A domineering husband, he is the stereotype of a male chauvinist.

(B) subjugated again

(A) musician

(C) made young again

(B) fixed conception

(D) made comfortable again

(C) disagreeable type

14. Her early skill with numbers was indicative of a genius in mathematics. (A) giving direction

(D) opposite 19. The senator formerly supported the president’s budget plans ardently.

(B) giving indication

(A) expertly

(C) giving assistance

(B) zealously

(D) giving approval

(C) arduously

15. Do you think your question is pertinent to the matter we are discussing? (A) perceptive

(D) entirely 20. The hurricane caused great havoc in the islands.

(B) appropriate

(A) winds

(C) discriminating

(B) treatment

(D) apparent

(C) destruction (D) immersion

Chapter 3: Words in Context


Directions: This crossword puzzle is a review of the vocabulary used in this chapter.






Suffix meaning after




Very bad

10. Eager


Make longer, increase

14. Prefix meaning out


Prefix meaning three

15. Praise



17. Either/


Auxiliary verb

18. Synonym for kind, type


Neither moral nor immoral

20. Prefix meaning nine



21. Suffix meaning person who



does something

10. Acting against

22. Triplets

11. Musical piece for two

23. Neuter pronoun

12. Antonym of yes

24. Abbrev. for Rhode Island

13. Speaking three languages

26. Camper’s “house”

16. Someone illiterate is

27. Abbreviation for place

19. Exclamation

28. Prefix meaning not

23. Negative prefix used with coherent

29. Cause to have no effect


32. Prefix meaning three

27. Prefix meaning for


rained last night.




PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review



33. Abbreviation for small bedroom

30. Alcoholic drink

35. Prefix meaning not


36. Negatives

32. Rise and fall of the sea

38. Fierce animal

33. Condition of being sane

39. Preposition:


tire, whole

34. Abbreviation for mister

40. Abbreviation for advertisem*nt

37. Opposite of subtle

41. Very poor

38. Loaded

45. Exist

39. Full of oil

46. Prefix meaning from

42. Latin for and

47. Neuter pronoun

43. First word in letter salutation

48. Work together

44. Ruin, destruction

52. Advanced degree

45. Employer

53. Delicious

48. Eat or drink

54. Huge

49. See 17 across

55. Article

50. Antonym of front

56. Abbreviation for elevation

51. Spoil

57. Possessive adjective

52. British spelling of meters

58. Slang for doctors

53. Prefix meaning above

59. Prefix meaning two

58. Someone who does things

60. Preposition:

59. Another definition for 29 across



home possible

60. Suffix meaning relating to

62. Foot covering

62. Hurt your toe

63. Decade


64. Abbreviation for near

65. Antonym of lose

65. Troubles

66. Use the eyes

67. Tempt

68. Preposition:

69. Pay back

70. Abbreviation for Social Security

72. Adverb suffix

71. Abbreviation for extra-terrestrial

73. Where a bird lives 74. Someone who is penniless has money 75. Abbreviation for street

the truth


Chapter 3: Words in Context


SUMMING IT UP • If you come across an unusual word, the definition of the word may be close to it.

• Try to understand the definition and apply it to the word in context. • Every time you read, practice looking for contextual clues.

Everyday and Specific Vocabulary • Strategies for learning related words • How thoughts are related • Summing it up

STRATEGIES FOR LEARNING RELATED WORDS Learning vocabulary in sets of words that are related to each other makes it easier for you to learn the words. It makes your study more structured than learning words in a random way. It also gives you a clue to the meaning of an unknown word. For example, when you see the term “check out” under the subject “library,” you will realize it is something you do when you are in a library.

You should make lists of words that are related to one subject to help you remember them. Keep adding to the list as you learn another word that’s related to that area.

Use a technique that will help you remember the words. You may memorize them or use visual or other clues to help you remember.

Words related to people and places are tested in the short dialogues and also appear in the longer conversations in the Listening Comprehension section of the TOEFL.

In the TOEFL short dialogues, you should listen for the word that will be a clue to either the person’s occupation or the location.

HOW THOUGHTS ARE RELATED In addition to providing you with a thorough review, this section of readings will concentrate on thought relations within sentences, paragraphs, and longer passages. It is important to be able to recognize and understand signal words or connectives, which introduce, connect, order, and relate individual ideas to larger and often more general concepts.


chapter 4



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

Study these connectives, paying close attention to their function. Connectives


and, also, as well as, besides, finally, furthermore, in addition to, in conclusion, moreover

more information will follow

examples, for example, kinds, types, sorts, ordinal numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.), others, several, some, such as, the following, ways

examples will follow

even if, however, in spite of, instead of, nevertheless, on the other hand, rather, still, yet, despite

an opposite idea will follow

all but, except

exceptions will follow

as a result of, because, due to, in order to, on account of, since


as a consequence, as a result, consequently, so, so as to, so that, therefore


after, as soon as, before, if, provided that, should, while, without, unless, until, following

conditions to be met

as, before. . .after, like some. . .other, than, once. . .now


Look at the following example. Note that the connectives are underlined and the ideas connected are circled. Can you determine the function of each connective? If necessary, refer back to the table. Mr. Green had sent his secretary to pick up his car, which he had taken to the garage in order to have the brakes repaired. While returning with Mr. Green’s car, the secretary, driving on Main Street, entered the intersection at Elm after the light changed from green to red. She sounded her horn but nevertheless collided with a car that had entered the intersection from Elm Street after the light had turned green. As you read the following passage, underline the signal words and circle the related ideas. Then give the function of each. When a death occurs, the family has religious, social, and legal responsibilities. If the deceased has left an explicit set of papers in an accessible file, arrangements will be much easier for the family to make. For example, such papers should include the deed for a burial plot (if there is one), a statement as to whether cremation or burial is desired, a copy of the birth certificate, and the names and addresses of all family members and friends who should be notified. Furthermore, the papers should include information on bank accounts, safe deposit boxes, and insurance policies, as well as the will. The person in charge of the funeral will need

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary

to know how much money is available in order to determine the expenses he or she may reasonably incur for the family. If feasible, the person who makes the funeral arrangements should not be one of the bereaved. A melancholy widow may not be able to make objective decisions regarding expenses, such as for a coffin. Whoever makes the funeral arrangements realizes that he or she is deputized to make legally binding contracts with a funeral director and others, which will probably be honored some months later when funds from the estate are released. One of the duties of the person in charge of the funeral is to prepare a death notice for the newspapers. Often the mortician arranges for the insertion of the notice. Included in the information should be the date of death, the names of the family members, and the time and place of the forthcoming interment.

Vocabulary Builder 1 Directions: Choose the correct synonym for the following underlined words. 1.

The deceased left you all of her jewelry. (A) missing person (B) dead person (C) wealthy person (D) relative


She left explicit instructions regarding her burial. (A) vague (B) exciting (C) irregular (D) clear


Because the information was easily accessible, we found it immediately. (A) acceptable (B) accessory (C) reachable (D) probable


Property deeds belong in a safe-deposit box. (A) actions (B) legal papers (C) wills (D) addresses



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review


He was careful not to incur too many bills for the widow to pay. (A) inquire (B) pay (C) acquire (D) change


A funeral is a melancholy event. (A) meaningful (B) medical (C) expensive (D) sorrowful


The family deputized a close friend to make the funeral arrangements. (A) disputed (B) deprived (C) delegated (D) dispatched


The funeral director gave the death notice to the local newspaper. (A) obituary (B) funeral (C) burial (D) biography


The undertaker waited three months after the funeral for his bill to be paid. (A) tax collector (B) beginner (C) mortician (D) priest

10. In tropical countries, the interment takes place within 24 hours of a death. (A) intermittent (B) burial (C) mourning period (D) interruption

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary

Now try to find the signal words and their functions in the following paragraph. The Central Park Conservancy raised $39,000 in private donations to employ twenty-five high school students from the New York area. With commendable zeal, the participants are embellishing the park, as well as weeding and cleaning unkempt areas. Although their employment is merely interim work over the summer, the youths share an affinity for horticulture. Collaboration with the Conservancy only whets their appetites for further endeavors with nature and ecology.

Vocabulary Builder 2 Directions: Choose the word that best completes the sentence. 1.

John and Mary he does the artwork.

on all their books; she writes the text and

(A) study (B) collaborate (C) discuss (D) divide 2.

His efforts to keep the peace were so the Nobel Peace Prize. (A) lucrative

that he was awarded

(B) mercenary (C) commendable (D) heavy



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review


They worked from dawn to dusk with such exhausted. (A) boredom

that they were

(B) detraction (C) debility (D) zeal 4.

Before they sold their house, they spent two months (A) trying


(B) embellishing (C) sifting (D) planting 5.

The (A) donations

in the program were high school students.

(B) endeavors (C) gardens (D) participants 6.

In the (A) rush

between shows, the actress went to Paris.

(B) closing (C) interim (D) practice 7.

He felt such a close (A) distaste

for animals that he became a veterinarian.

(B) affinity (C) approach (D) likeness 8.

A bite of chocolate cake only (A) spares

my desire for more.

(B) lets (C) changes (D) whets 9.

Working in the park stimulates his interest in (A) archaeology (B) horticulture (C) zoology (D) biology


Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary

10. We’ll have to clean up this (A) tired

yard before the guests arrive.

(B) unlikely (C) undone (D) unkempt

Here is a longer passage. Look at the first sentence. Can you guess what the article is about? Before you do the vocabulary builder that follows the reading, locate all the signal words and determine their functions. You will probably find that this will help you achieve a better understanding of the information included here. Divorce settlements attempt to make an equitable distribution of a couple’s assets. Wrangles are common over who gets the car, the furniture, or the dog, but people overlook future needs and income. Two important issues will have to be decided by the courts. Can the divorced wife continue to have health coverage under her former husband’s policy? Is the divorced wife entitled to a share of her ex-husband’s pension? So far the subject of health insurance has created much dissension. Most insurance companies exclude former wives from their definition of a worker’s dependents. In order to circumvent his ex-wife’s exclusion from his health plan, many a husband has concealed his divorce from his employer. Divorced spouses of military men anticipate that a newly approved bill will allow them 180 days’ medical coverage and continued coverage for serious ailments if they were married for at least 20 years during their husbands’ service career. Ex-wives are faring better in the pension-sharing dilemma than they are in obtaining health coverage. The courts have set a precedent in awarding pension funds to divorced women, particularly if there are defaults in alimony and childsupport payments. Nevertheless, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act prohibits the payment of a pension to anyone other than the worker. Litigation of ex-wives seeking a share in their former husbands’ pensions contends that the



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

ERISA was passed for the purpose of protecting workers from creditors’ attempts to attach pensions, not from their ex-wives. In a recent decision, the Supreme Court gave exclusive pension rights to the military retiree whose retirement plan is not under the jurisdiction of state property laws. On the other hand, the former wives of retired foreign service personnel are legally entitled to a share of these retirees’ pensions in proportion to the length of their marriage. Obviously, there is no panacea for the ills besetting the legal system. Divorced women can only pray for significant benefits from future legislation.

Vocabulary Builder 3 Directions: In this exercise, put the number of the synonym in Column B beside the word in Column A. A


a. equitable

1. illness

b. assets

2. example

c. wrangle

3. cure

d. ailment

4. quarrel

e. fare

5. succeed

f. dilemma

6. impartial

g. precedent

7. property

h. default

8. fail

i. panacea

9. predicament

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary

Vocabulary Builder 4 In this group of words, the noun is formed by adding ion to the verb. Note the spelling change in some of them. Verb




























If there are any words that you do not understand from the list above, look them up in your dictionary. Then, select the word from the four choices that best completes the sentence. Write the correct form in the space provided. 1.

Recent object


donate of it.


anticipate among family members





the Fourth of July with a bang. celebrate


The police department stration this afternoon. object


to my smoking.


We were surprised by the insert



Americans donate



I hope you don’t intimidate



Unless a will is written clearly, may be inevitable. legislate



Half the enjoyment of a vacation is the insert


has raised taxes on luxury items.


legislate of candidates for the legislature.


select trouble at the antinuclear demon-





PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review


It is difficult to additional material in a manuscript once it has been prepared for the printer. insert



He gave a generous donate


10. Thousands of runners celebrate




to the public television station. participate


in the annual Boston Marathon. intimidate


Vocabulary Builder 5 Directions: Choose the correct synonym for the underlined word in the following sentences. Use your dictionary if you need to. 1.

Tom insisted upon a fair share of the partnership’s profits. (A) spare (B) division (C) merit (D) help


The president held a brief press conference. (A) documented (B) long (C) pleasant (D) short

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary


In spite of his rude behavior on the tennis court, John has many ardent admirers. (A) arduous (B) eager (C) wild (D) fabulous


An affable response frequently turns away wrath. (A) pleasant (B) loud (C) polite (D) angry


It is extremely hazardous to try to break up a fierce dog fight. (A) cross (B) ravenous (C) noisy (D) violent


Superstition may easily lead you astray. (A) irrational belief (B) succession (C) logic (D) misdirection


Queen Victoria’s palatial country home draws many visitors to the Isle of Wight. (A) palatine (B) paltry (C) palace-like (D) partial


The little boy certainly has distinguished godparents. (A) mother and father (B) sponsors at the baptism (C) religious supporters (D) loving relatives



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review


The principal threatened to expel him from school if he didn’t behave better. (A) excise (B) exert (C) send out (D) try out

10. He sang the hymn to the accompaniment of the church choir. (A) voices (B) support (C) meter (D) music

Vocabulary Builder 6 Directions: Now use the vocabulary words to complete these sentences. Be sure to use the correct form. 1.

The spy was hanged for

with the enemy. working together


I spend my weekends at my beach house, far from the noise and of the big city. overcrowding


The defense attorney could not find a witness whose version of the incident with that of the accused. agreed

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary


Certain drugs have been blamed for prescribed for pregnant women.

defects and should not be before birth


The children are making so much noise that I can’t on my work. give complete attention


Reading is an essential

of any language course. part


How did you ever come up with that unappetizing

? mixture


The priest promised to

evil and help those in need. fight


If only we had made sure that we were truly before we made our nuptial vows! able to live together

10. The decision concerning the withdrawal of troops was made at a between the Attorney General and the President. meeting 11. Every morning at nine the boss and her secretary on the work plan for the day. talk together 12. If he is serious about a career in journalism, he ought to develop a more style of writing. short and clear 13. White wine is a to a good seafood dinner. something that completes 14. Thousands of athletes from around the world Games.

in the Olympic try to win

15. Only my older sister knows my secrets; she and I have in each other since we were children.

talked freely



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

Vocabulary Builder 7 Directions: Choose the alternative that has the same meaning as the underlined word. 1.

He reads periodicals that are pertinent to his profession. (A) appropriate (B) apparent (C) perceptive (D) discriminating


I like chocolate as well as licorice. (A) but the opposite (B) in spite of (C) and (D) rather than


Before Smith went on vacation, he left explicit instructions for the painting of his apartment. (A) colorful (B) clear (C) verbal (D) written


I’m looking for a little cabin in the woods where I won’t be accessible to my relatives. (A) acceptable (B) probable (C) reachable (D) accessory

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary


John and Mary worked on their garden with such zeal this summer that they grew more tomatoes than they could eat. (A) fertilizers (B) garden tools (C) unwillingness (D) enthusiasm


No one could decide whether she married him for mercenary motives or she loved him in spite of his millions. (A) money-loving (B) mercurial (C) unknown (D) lucrative


Because he had defaulted in his car payments, the bank repossessed the car. (A) erred (B) deprived (C) failed (D) delayed


Because he had invited two girls to the dance, he found himself in a terrible dilemma. (A) predicament (B) romance (C) argument (D) discussion


No matter how hard we try, there is no way to circumvent taxes. (A) pay in installments (B) get around (C) travel around (D) round up

10. Because their birthdays occurred in the same month, they shared a birthday party. (A) celebrated (B) spared (C) merited (D) experienced together



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

11. He’s such an affable fellow that people sometimes take advantage of him. (A) accessible (B) good-natured (C) wealthy (D) weak 12. A recent bride enjoys concocting special dinners for her husband. (A) putting together (B) inventing (C) coordinating (D) cooperating 13. Married couples can get a divorce if they find they are not compatible. (A) able to budget their money (B) capable of having children (C) capable of living harmoniously (D) able to share an apartment or house 14. The consensus among his sisters was that he ought to get married. (A) agreement (B) survey (C) statistics (D) concentration 15. The newscaster gave a concise account of the tragedy. (A) long and detailed (B) sad and depressing (C) complicated and intricate (D) short and clear

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary

Vocabulary Builder 8 Directions: Put the number of the definition or synonym in Column B beside the appropriate word in Column A. A


a. stereotype

1. move slowly and aimlessly

b. meander

2. increase

c. pilfer

3. elementary, initial

d. complement

4. jubilant song

e. amenity

5. draw out

f. augment

6. steal

g. paean

7. pleasantness

h. rudimentary

8. fixed pattern representing a type of person

i. habitat

9. natural locality of plant or animal

j. elicit

10. make complete

Directions: Use the words above to complete the following sentences. 1.

On Sundays, I love to

through the woods and bird watch.


Comprehending calculus is impossible if you have only a knowledge of mathematics.


Wildlife sanctuaries protect the they feed.


Absent-minded and thoughtful, Dr. James is the professor.

of birds and the plants on which of a college



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review


He will have to find a second job to

his income.


Vocabulary exercises


The detective tried to


The superintendent was trying to catch the person who had from the children’s desks.


The hotel we stayed in last weekend didn’t have a single left after one night.

the work required for reading comprehension. the truth from the captured felon.

10. At the Thanksgiving service, the congregation sang a

, so we .

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary When reading in English, you will come across foreign words that have been incorporated into the language. Below is a list of some of the most commonly used foreign words. Find out what they mean, add them to your cards, then do the exercises that follow. 1. ad infinitum

11. élite

21. non sequitor

2. alumnus, alumna

12. ennui

22. nouveau riche

3. bête noire

13. rapport

23. par excellence

4. carte blanche

14. faux pas

24. parvenu

5. cliché

15. forte

25. pecadillo

6. connoisseur

16. gourmet

26. potpourri

7. coquette

17. macabre

25. savoir faire

8. coup de grace

18. magnum opus

28. suave

9. dilettante

19. misanthrope

29. tyro

10. double entendre

20. misogynist

30. virtuoso

Now study these sentences that give you examples of how these words are generally used in English sentences. 1.

She talked about her troubles ad infinitum, so we all went home early.


He is an alumnus of Boston University, and she is an alumna of Princeton.


My bête noire has always been spelling.


The Queen was given carte blanche wherever she went.


The speaker’s lecture was full of clichés, which annoyed his audience greatly.


As a connoisseur of modern art, he was invited to all of the gallery openings.


Carmen was a coquette whom no man could resist.


As far as he was concerned, the coup de grace in the divorce settlement was his wife’s getting the dog.


He will never be anything more than a dilettante in art.

10. At the bachelors’ party, everything that was said seemed to have a double entendre. 11. Only the élite were invited to the royal wedding. 12. That movie was so bad that I nearly passed out from ennui. 13. It is important for teachers to establish a good rapport with their students. 14. Not thanking the hostess for dinner was a faux pas on my part.



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

15. Mathematics is definitely John’s forte. 16. Charlie’s Chophouse is not for gourmets. 17. The children were frightened by the macabre Halloween decorations. 18. After thirty years of intense work on his magnum opus, he found a publisher. 19. His denunciation of just about everyone and everything earned him the reputation of a misanthrope. 20. He was so old when he got married that his friends had begun to think that he was a misogynist. 21. Helen’s conversation is so full of non sequitors that we cannot understand her. 22. The neighbors are obviously nouveau riche and don’t have the vaguest notion of good taste. 23. Perlman is a violinist par excellence. 24. A parvenue, he was not accepted by the old families of Bar Harbor. 25. His wife was used to his pecadillos and forgave them. 26. Stew is a potpourri of meat and vegetables. 27. She showed a great deal of savoir faire for such a young girl. 28. A suave gentleman never lacks invitations to dinner. 29. A tyro in the business world usually earns very little money. 30. Wynton Marsalis is a virtuoso in the music world.

Vocabulary Builder 9 Directions: Determine the meaning of the underlined word from the context. 1.

Students beguile their leisure hours in computer stores. (A) cause time to pass unnoticed (B) begin (C) waste regrettably (D) fool around


He devised a computer game and sold it to Atari. (A) played (B) bought (C) invented (D) divided

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary


Manufacturers are donating computers to schools. (A) giving (B) going (C) dedicating (D) deducting


I am not ingenious enough to invent a video game. (A) studious (B) clever (C) glorious (D) indigenous


Currently, students appear to be learning and having fun simultaneously. (A) electrically (B) concurrently (C) sometimes (D) at the present time


It is said that you can intimidate your enemies by speaking in a low voice and carrying a big stick. (A) frighten (B) attack (C) harass (D) make peace with


Avid opera lovers are willing to stand in line for hours. (A) musical (B) averse (C) eager (D) tedious


Einstein was a brilliant mathematician. (A) shining (B) very intelligent (C) famous (D) foreign


A computer may be used in the math classroom to implement the lesson. (A) implant (B) learn (C) entreat (D) carry out



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

10. Physics is an enigma to me. (A) energy (B) problem (C) mystery (D) trial 11. A hundred dollars will suffice to buy a home computer. (A) be saved (B) be charged (C) be suffered (D) be enough 12. The kids spoke a jargon of their own that no one else understood. (A) accent (B) unintelligible talk (C) vocabulary (D) foreign language 13. It was a minute crack in the motor block that ruined the car. (A) hidden (B) multiple (C) many-sided (D) very small 14. Studying vocabulary can be an irksome task. (A) easy (B) pleasant (C) tedious (D) irate 15. The tennis player protested the call with great fervor. (A) passion (B) favor (C) fever (D) dislike

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary Vocabulary Builder 10 Directions: Determine the meaning of the underlined word from the context; then select the best synonym. 1.

Mr. Morton went downstairs to receive them. (A) get (B) welcome (C) say goodbye to (D) sign for


Lady Augustus, though economical in most things, spent a lot of money on clothes. (A) awkward (B) extravagant (C) thrifty (D) careless


They lived luxuriously even though they had no income. (A) expensively (B) cheaply (C) usury (D) beautifully



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review


Arabella never stirred anywhere without her maid. (A) mixed (B) moved (C) stayed (D) resided


It would be grievous to her to live without her maid. (A) pleasant (B) grateful (C) painful (D) tearful


The expensive purse was a necessary appendage to Arabella. (A) something added (B) application (C) dependent (D) servant


He never betrayed himself to anyone but the butler. (A) made known (B) fooled (C) bewildered (D) bestowed


She was graceful and never moved awkwardly. (A) smoothly (B) clumsily (C) merrily (D) gracefully


She prided herself on her graceful walk. (A) was proud (B) was pricked (C) was happy (D) was sorry

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary

10. He, on the other hand, always seemed to drag. (A) dread to move (B) dress carelessly (C) walk fast (D) move too slowly 11. A woman who marries for money, not love, is indeed mercenary. (A) loving money (B) disinterested (C) responsible (D) meticulous



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

EXERCISES: SYNONYMS Directions: Choose the alternative that has the same meaning as the underlined word. 1. Before you can take calculus, you need more than a rudimentary knowledge of algebra.

6. The spacecraft orbited the earth many times. (A) circled

(A) rude

(B) viewed

(B) thorough

(C) returned

(C) elementary

(D) overlooked

(D) superficial 2. The augmentation in the population has created a fuel shortage.

7. Dick met Jane at a secluded rendezvous overlooking the avenue. (A) restaurant

(A) augury

(B) park

(B) increase

(C) meeting place

(C) demand

(D) picnic ground

(D) necessity 3. Detective Smith used various means to elicit a confession from the murderer.

8. Dauntless men and women crossed America in covered wagons. (A) foreign

(A) make

(B) fearless

(B) force

(C) adventuresome

(C) frame

(D) penniless

(D) draw out 4. It seems inevitable that the world will end from natural causes.

9. The pilot miraculously survived the crash unscathed. (A) unsurprised

(A) invariable

(B) unhurt

(B) unavoidable

(C) unhappy

(C) impressionable

(D) undeterred

(D) inestimable 5. Dr. Salk was lauded for his work with the polio vaccine.

10. A week’s sojourn in Paris can be very expensive. (A) shopping

(A) rewarded

(B) sightseeing

(B) merited

(C) journey

(C) praised

(D) stay

(D) heralded

Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary

14. The Sphinx was an enigma to all but Oedipus. (A) mystery

(A) welcome

(B) problem

(B) too much

(C) enemy

(C) objectionable

(D) entity

(D) talkative 12. You should try to avoid clichés if you want to be a creative writer.

15. As an alumnus of Harvard, he felt compelled to contribute to the building fund. (A) student

(A) ungrammatical sentences

(B) professor

(B) improper language

(C) supporter

(C) plagiarized sections

(D) graduate

(D) trite phrases 13. He devised a folding toothbrush for travelers. (A) sold (B) bought (C) invented (D) described


11. A younger sister is obnoxious to have around when the older sister’s boyfriend comes to the house.



PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review

EXERCISES: PUTTING IT TOGETHER Directions: Try to do this crossword puzzle; it is a review of the vocabulary used in previous chapters.




Studies or looks at again




Make more beautiful


Dull, uninteresting

10. Prefix meaning eight



11. Delegated


Deep, round container

13. Works together


Animal used for wool

16. Short form of middle


Prefix meaning between

18. Hexa


Science of growing fruit, vegetables,

20. Bends the head to show agreement

and flowers 9.

Antonym of give

22. Confusion

12. Auxiliary verb

24. Ability

14. Preposition:

26. Friendly, pleasant

15. Irrational belief

27. Feeling of boredom, weariness

17. Excites

28. Kidnap

18. Abbreviation for Social Security

30. Possessive adjective

19. Neuter pronoun

31. Salary increase

21. Fail, as in payments


Chapter 4: Everyday and Specific Vocabulary


33. Avoid by going around

23. Join together

36. Past of sit


37. Abbreviation for saint

29. Vagabond

38. Indefinite article

32. Suffix indicating someone

39. Property who practices

34. Wander aimlessly

40. Threaten, making someone

35. Very large

act through fear

I were you. . .

38. Classified





PART III: TOEFL Vocabulary Review


Make a list of words that relate to each other. Words that relate to people and places are usually tested in the short dialogues. Words that relate to people and places appear in the longer conversations in the Listening Comprehension section.

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